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Q81. - (Topic 3) 

Which IOS command is used to initiate a login into a VTY port on a remote router? 

A. router# login 

B. router# telnet 

C. router# trace 

D. router# ping 

E. router(config)# line vty 0 5 

F. router(config-line)# login 



VTY ports are telnet ports hence command B will initiate login to the telnet port. 

Q82. - (Topic 3) 

On a live network, which commands will verify the operational status of router interfaces? (Choose two.) 

A. Router# show interfaces 

B. Router# show ip protocols 

C. Router# debug interface 

D. Router# show ip interface brief 

E. Router# show start 

Answer: A,D 


Only two commands “show interfaces” and “show ip interface brief” reveal the status of router interfaces (up/up, for example). 

Q83. - (Topic 4) 

What is the best practice when assigning IP addresses in a small office of six hosts? 

A. Use a DHCP server that is located at the headquarters. 

B. Use a DHCP server that is located at the branch office. 

C. Assign the addresses by using the local CDP protocol. 

D. Assign the addresses statically on each node. 



Its best to use static addressing scheme where the number of systems is manageable rather than using a dynamic method such as DHCP as it is easy to operate and manage. 

Q84. - (Topic 3) 

What is the subnet address of 









Converting to binary format it comes to 11111111.11111111.11111100.00000000 or Starting with and having increment of 4 we get. 

Q85. - (Topic 5) 

Why would a network administrator configure port security on a switch? 

A. to prevent unauthorized Telnet access to a switch port 

B. to prevent unauthorized hosts from accessing the LAN 

C. to limit the number of Layer 2 broadcasts on a particular switch port 

D. block unauthorized access to the switch management interfaces 



You can use the port security feature to restrict input to an interface by limiting and identifying MAC addresses of the stations allowed to access the port. When you assign secure MAC addresses to a secure port, the port does not forward packets with source addresses outside the group of defined addresses. If you limit the number of secure MAC addresses to one and assign a single secure MAC address, the workstation attached to that port is assured the full bandwidth of the port. If a port is configured as a secure port and the maximum number of secure MAC addresses is reached, when the MAC address of a station attempting to access the port is different from any of the identified secure MAC addresses, a security violation occurs. Also, if a station with a secure MAC address configured or learned on one secure port attempts to access another secure port, a violation is flagged. 

Q86. - (Topic 7) 

Which destination IP address can a host use to send one message to multiple devices across different subnets? 






Explanation: Multicast is a networking protocol where one host can send a message to a special multicast IP address and one or more network devices can listen for and receive 

those messages. Multicast works by taking advantage of the existing IPv4 networking infrastructure, and it does so in something of a weird fashion. As you read, keep in mind that things are a little confusing because multicast was "shoe-horned" in to an existing technology. For the rest of this article, let's use the multicast IP address of We'll not worry about port numbers yet, but make a mental note that they are used in multicast. We'll discuss that later. 

Q87. - (Topic 3) 

ROUTER# show ip route is variably subnetted, 9 subnets, 3 masks C /28 is directly connected, Loopback1 C /28 is directly connected, Ethernet0 C /28 is directly connected, Loopback0 O /30 [110/128] via, 00:35:36, Serial0 C /30 is directly connected, Serial0 O /30 [110/782] via, 00:35:36, Serial0 O /30 [110/128] via, 00:35:36, Serial0 O /30 [110/782] via, 00:35:37, Serial0 O /30 [110/782] via, 00:35:37, Serial0 O [110/128] via, 00:35:36, Serial 0 

To what does the 128 refer to in the router output above? 

A. OSPF cost 

B. OSPF priority 

C. OSPF hop count 

D. OSPF ID number 

E. OSPF administrative distance 



The first parameter is the Administrative Distance of OSPF (110) while the second parameter is the cost of OSPF. 

Q88. CORRECT TEXT - (Topic 6) 

This topology contains 3 routers and 1 switch. Complete the topology. 

Drag the appropriate device icons to the labeled Device Drag the appropriate connections to the locations labeled Connections. Drag the appropriate IP addresses to the locations labeled IP address 

(Hint: use the given host addresses and Main router information) To remove a device or connection, drag it away from the topology. 

Use information gathered from the Main router to complete the configuration of any additional routers. 

No passwords are required to access the Main router. The config terminal command has been disabled for the HQ router. The router does not require any configuration. 

Configure each additional router with the following: 

Configure the interfaces with the correct IP address and enable the interfaces. 

Set the password to allow console access to consolepw 

Set the password to allow telnet access to telnetpw 

Set the password to allow privilege mode access to privpw 

Not E: Because routes are not being added to the configurations, you will not be able to ping through the internetwork. 

All devices have cable autosensing capabilities disabled. 

All hosts are PC’s 

Answer: Specify appropriate devices and drag them on the "Device" boxes For the device at the bottom-right box, we notice that it has 2 interfaces Fa0/2 and Fa0/4; moreover the link connects the PC on the right with the device on the bottom-right is a straight-through link -> it is a switch The question stated that this topology contains 3 routers and 1 switch -> two other devices are routers Place them on appropriate locations as following: (Host D and host E will be automatically added after placing two routers. Click on them to access neighboring routers) Specify appropriate connections between these devices: 


 The router on the left is connected with the Main router through FastEthernet interfaces: use a crossover cable 


 The router on the right is connected with the Main router through Serial interfaces: use a 

serial cable 


 The router on the right and the Switch: use a straight-through cable 


 The router on the left and the computer: use a crossover cable (To remember which type of cable you should use, follow these tips: 


To connect two serial interfaces of 2 routers we use serial cable 


To specify when we use crossover cable or straight-through cable, we should remember: Group 1: Router, Host, Server Group 2: Hub, Switch One device in group 1 + One device in group 2: use straight-through cable Two devices in the same group: use crossover cable For example, we use straight-through cable to connect switch to router, switch to host, hub to host, hub to server... and we use crossover cable to connect switch to switch, switch to hub, router to router, host to host.) Assign appropriate IP addresses for interfaces: From Main router, use show running-config command. 

 (Notice that you may see different IP addresses in the real CCNA exam, the ones shown above are just used for demonstration) 

From the output we learned that the ip address of Fa0/0 interface of the Main router is This address belongs to a subnetwork which has: 

Increment: 16 (/28 = or 1111 1111.1111 1111.1111 1111.1111 0000) 

Network address: (because 176 = 16 * 11 and 176 < 177) 

Broadcast address: (because 191 = 176 + 16 - 1) 

And we can pick up an ip address from the list that belongs to this subnetwork: and assign it to the Fa0/0 interface the router on the left Use the same method for interface Serial0/0 with an ip address of Increment: 16 Network address: (because 160 = 16 * 10 and 160 < 161) Broadcast address: (because 176 = 160 + 16 - 1) -> and we choose for Serial0/0 interface of the router on the right Interface Fa0/1 of the router on the left IP (of the computer on the left) : Increment: 16 Network address: (because 128 = 16 * 8 and 128 < 129) Broadcast address: (because 143 = 128 + 16 - 1) -> we choose from the list Interface Fa0/0 of the router on the right IP (of the computer on the left) : Increment: 16 Network address: (because 224 = 16 * 14 and 224 < 225) Broadcast address: (because 239 = 224 + 16 - 1) -> we choose from the list Let's have a look at the picture below to summarize Configure two routers on the left and right with these commands: Router1 = router on the left Assign appropriate IP addresses to Fa0/0 & Fa0/1 interfaces: Router1>enable Router1#configure terminal Router1(config)#interface fa0/0 Router1(config-if)#ip address Router1(config-if)#no shutdown Router1(config-if)#interface fa0/1 Router1(config-if)#ip address Router1(config-if)#no shutdown Set passwords (configure on two routers) 


 Console password: Router1(config-if)#exit Router1(config)#line console 0 

Router1(config-line)#password consolepw Router1(config-line)#login Router1(config-line)#exit 


 Telnet password: Router1(config)#line vty 0 4 Router1(config-line)#password telnetpw Router1(config-line)#login Router1(config-line)#exit 


 Privilege mode password: Router1(config)#enable password privpw Save the configuration: Router1(config)#exit Router1#copy running-config startup-config Configure IP addresses of Router2 (router on the right) Router2>enable Router2#configure terminal Router2(config)#interface fa0/0 Router2(config-if)#ip address Router2(config-if)#no shutdown Router2(config-if)#interface serial0/0 Router2(config-if)#ip address Router2(config-if)#no shutdown Then set the console, telnet and privilege mode passwords for Router2 as we did for Router1, remember to save the configuration when you finished. 

Q89. - (Topic 3) 

Refer to the exhibit. 

The network is converged.After link-state advertisements are received from Router_A, what information will Router_E contain in its routing table for the subnets and 

A.[110/13] via, 00:00:07, FastEthemet0/0[110/13] via, 00:00:16, FastEthemet0/0 

B.[110/1] via, 00:00:07, Serial1/0[110/3] via, 00:00:16, FastEthemet0/0 

C.[110/13] via, 00:00:07, Serial1/0[110/13] via, 00:00:16, Serial1/0[110/13] via, 00:00:16, FastEthemet0/0 

D.[110/3] via, 00:00:07, Serial1/0[110/3] via, 00:00:16, Serial1/0 



Router_E learns two subnets subnets and via Router_A 

through FastEthernet interface. The interface cost is calculated with the formula 108 / 

Bandwidth. For FastEthernet it is 108 / 100 Mbps = 108 / 100,000,000 = 1. Therefore the 

cost is 12 (learned from Router_A) + 1 = 13 for both subnets -> 

The cost through T1 link is much higher than through T3 link (T1 cost = 108 / 1.544 Mbps = 

64; T3 cost = 108 / 45 Mbps = 2) so surely OSPF will choose the path through T3 link -> 

Router_E will choose the path from Router_A through FastEthernet0/0, not Serial1/0. 

In fact, we can quickly eliminate answers B, C and D because they contain at least one 

subnet learned from Serial1/0 -> they are surely incorrect. 

Q90. - (Topic 1) 

Which three statements are true about the operation of a full-duplex Ethernet network? (Choose three.) 

A. There are no collisions in full-duplex mode. 

B. A dedicated switch port is required for each full-duplex node. 

C. Ethernet hub ports are preconfigured for full-duplex mode. 

D. In a full-duplex environment, the host network card must check for the availability of the network media before transmitting. 

E. The host network card and the switch port must be capable of operating in full-duplex mode. 

Answer: A,B,E 


Half-duplex Ethernet is defined in the original 802.3 Ethernet and Cisco says you only use one wire pair with a digital signal running in both directions on the wire. It also uses the CSMA/CD protocol to help prevent collisions and to permit retransmitting if a collision does occur. If a hub is attached to a switch, it must operate in half-duplex mode because the end stations must be able to detect collisions. Half-duplex Ethernet—typically 10BaseT—is only about 30 to 40 percent efficient as Cisco sees it, because a large 10BaseT network will usually only give you 3- to 4Mbps—at most. Full-duplex Ethernet uses two pairs of wires, instead of one wire pair like half duplex. Also, full duplex uses a point-to-point connection between the transmitter of the transmitting device and the receiver of the receiving device, which means that with full-duplex data transfer, you get a faster data transfer compared to half duplex. And because the transmitted data is sent on a different set of wires than the received data, no collisions occur. The reason you don’t need to worry about collisions is because now Full-duplex Ethernet is like a freeway with multiple lanes instead of the single-lane road provided by half duplex. Full-duplex Ethernet is supposed to offer 100 percent efficiency in both directions; this means you can get 20Mbps with a 10Mbps Ethernet running full duplex, or 200Mbps for FastEthernet.