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Q41. - (Topic 2) 

Refer to the exhibit. 

The network associate is configuring OSPF on the Core router. All the connections to the branches should be participating in OSPF. The link to the ISP should NOT participate in OSPF and should only be advertised as the default route. What set of commands will properly configure the Core router? 

A. Core(config-router)# default-information originate Core(config-router)# network area 0 Core(config-router)# exit Core(config)# ip route 

B. Core(config-router)# default-information originate Core(config-router)# network area 0 Core(config-router)# exit Core(config)# ip route 

C. Core(config-router)# default-information originate Core(config-router)# network area 0 Core(config-router)# exit Core(config)# ip route 

D. Core(config-router)# default-information originate Core(config-router)# network area 0 Core(config-router)# exit Core(config)# ip route 



There are two ways to inject a default route into a normal area.1. If the ASBR already has the default route in its routing table, you can advertise theexisting into the OSPF domain with the default-information originate router configuration command.2. If the ASBR doesn’t have a default route, you can add the keyword always to the default-information originate command (default-information originate always).This command will advertise a default route into the OSPF domain, regardless of whether it has a route to Another benefit of adding always keyword is that it can add stability to the internetwork. For example, if the ASBR is learning a default route from another routing domain such as RIP and this route is flapping, then without the always keyword, each time the route flaps, the ASBR will send a new Type 5 LSA into the OSPF domain causing some instability inside the OSPF domain. With the always keyword, the ASBR will advertise the default inside the OSPF domain always, In the example shown here, only choice C is correct as the wildcard mask correctly specifies the networks, which include all IP addresses in the range. In this question we were told that the ISP link should NOT be configured for OSPF, making choice A incorrect. ec9f0.shtml 

Q42. - (Topic 2) 

A router is running three routing processes: RIP, OSPF, and EIGRP, each configured with default characteristics. Each process learns a route to the same remote network. 

If there are no static routes to the destination and none of the routes were redistributed, which route will be placed in the IP routing table? 

A. the route learned through EIGRP 

B. the route learned through OSPF 

C. the route learned through RIP 

D. the route with the lowest metric 

E. all three routes with the router load balancing 



Administrative distance is the feature that routers use in order to select the best path. 

Administrative distance defines the reliability of a routing protocol. Each routing protocol is prioritized in order of most to least reliable (believable) with the help of an administrative distance value. Lowest Administrative distance will be chosen first. 

Q43. - (Topic 1) 

Which port state is introduced by Rapid-PVST? 

A. learning 

B. listening 

C. discarding 

D. forwarding 



Spanning Tree from PVST+ to Rapid-PVST Migration Configuration Example Reference 1: 09186a00807b0670.shtml 

Reference 2: a.shtml 

PVST+ is based on IEEE802.1D Spanning Tree Protocol (STP). But PVST+ has only 3 port states (discarding, learning and forwarding) while STP has 5 port states (blocking, listening, learning, forwarding and disabled). So discarding is a new port state in PVST+. 

Background Information 

802.1D Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) has a drawback of slow convergence. Cisco 

Catalyst switches support three types of STPs, which are PVST+, rapid-PVST+ and MST. 

PVST+ is based on IEEE802.1D standard and includes Cisco proprietary extensions such 

as BackboneFast, UplinkFast, and PortFast. Rapid-PVST+ is based on IEEE 802.1w 

standard and has a faster convergence than 802.1D. RSTP (IEEE 802.1w) natively 

includes most of the Cisco proprietary enhancements to the 802.1D Spanning Tree, such 

as BackboneFast and UplinkFast. Rapid-PVST+ has these unique features: 

Uses Bridge Protocol Data Unit (BPDU) version 2 which is backward compatible with the 

802.1D STP, which uses BPDU version 0. 

All the switches generate BPDUs and send out on all the ports every 2 seconds, whereas 

in 802.1D STP only the root bridge sends the configuration BPDUs. 

Port Roles—Root port, designated port, alternate port and backup port. 

Port States—Discarding, Learning, and Forwarding. 

Port Types—Edge Port (PortFast), Point-to-Point and Shared port. 

Rapid-PVST uses RSTP to provide faster convergence. When any RSTP port receives 

legacy 802.1D BPDU, it falls back to legacy STP and the inherent fast convergence 

benefits of 802.1w are lost when it interacts with legacy bridges. 

Q44. - (Topic 1) 

Which protocol provides a method of sharing VLAN configuration information between two Cisco switches? 



C. 802.1Q 




Understanding VLAN Trunk Protocol (VTP) shtml 

Introduction VLAN Trunk Protocol (VTP) reduces administration in a switched network. When you configure a new VLAN on one VTP server, the VLAN is distributed through all switches in the domain. This reduces the need to configure the same VLAN everywhere. VTP is a Cisco-proprietary protocol that is available on most of the Cisco Catalyst series products. 

Q45. - (Topic 3) 

The output of the show frame-relay pvc command shows "PVC STATUS = INACTIVE". What does this mean? 

A. The PVC is configured correctly and is operating normally, but no data packets have been detected for more than five minutes. 

B. The PVC is configured correctly, is operating normally, and is no longer actively seeking the address of the remote router. 

C. The PVC is configured correctly, is operating normally, and is waiting for interesting traffic to trigger a call to the remote router. 

D. The PVC is configured correctly on the local switch, but there is a problem on the remote end of the PVC. 

E. The PVC is not configured on the local switch. 


Explanation: The PVC STATUS displays the status of the PVC. The DCE device creates and sends the report to the DTE devices. There are 4 statuses: ACTIVE: the PVC is operational and can transmit dataINACTIVE: the connection from the local router to the switch is working, but the connection to the remote router is not availableDELETED: the PVC is not present and no LMI information is being received from the Frame Relay switch STATIC: the Local Management Interface (LMI) mechanism on the interface is disabled (by using the “no keepalive” command). This status is rarely seen. 

Q46. - (Topic 3) 

A network administrator needs to configure a serial link between the main office and a remote location. The router at the remote office is a non-Cisco router. How should the network administrator configure the serial interface of the main office router to make the connection? 

A. Main(config)# interface serial 0/0 Main(config-if)# ip address Main(config-if)# no shut 

B. Main(config)# interface serial 0/0 Main(config-if)# ip address Main(config-if)# encapsulation ppp Main(config-if)# no shut 

C. Main(config)# interface serial 0/0 Main(config-if)# ip address Main(config-if)# encapsulation frame-relay Main(config-if)# authentication chap Main(config-if)# no shut 

D. Main(config)# interface serial 0/0 Main(config-if)#ip address Main(config-if)#encapsulation ietf Main(config-if)# no shut 



Cisco High-Level Data Link Controller (HDLC) is the Cisco proprietary protocol for sending data over synchronous serial links using HDLC. So HDLC runs only in Cisco router. PPP is not proprietary protocol it's a open source every cisco router and non-cisco router understand the PPP protocol.So we need to configure the PPP protocol if connection is between cisco and non-cisco router. 

Q47. - (Topic 3) 

Which two statistics appear in show frame-relay map output? (Choose two.) 

A. the number of BECN packets that are received by the router 

B. the value of the local DLCI 

C. the number of FECN packets that are received by the router 

D. the status of the PVC that is configured on the router 

E. the IP address of the local router 

Answer: B,D 


Frame Relay Commands (map-class frame-relay through threshold ecn) 


The following is sample output from the show frame-relay map command: 

Router#show frame-relay map Serial 1 (administratively down): ip 

dlci 177 (0xB1,0x2C10), static, broadcast, 


TCP/IP Header Compression (inherited), passive (inherited) 

Q48. - (Topic 3) 

What is the purpose of LCP? 

A. to perform authentication 

B. to negotiate control options 

C. to encapsulate multiple protocols 

D. to specify asynchronous versus synchronous 



In order to be sufficiently versatile to be portable to a wide variety of environments, PPP provides a Link Control Protocol (LCP). The LCP is used to automatically agree upon the encapsulation format options, handle varying limits on sizes of packets, detect a looped-back link and other common misconfiguration errors, and terminate the link. Other optional facilities provided are authentication of the identity of its peer on the link, and determination when a link is functioning properly and when it is failing. 

Reference: Link Control Protocol 

Q49. - (Topic 1) 

Which three of these statements regarding 802.1Q trunking are correct? (Choose three.) 

A. 802.1Q native VLAN frames are untagged by default. 

B. 802.1Q trunking ports can also be secure ports. 

C. 802.1Q trunks can use 10 Mb/s Ethernet interfaces. 

D. 802.1Q trunks require full-duplex, point-to-point connectivity. 

E. 802.1Q trunks should have native VLANs that are the same at both ends. 

Answer: A,C,E 


CCNA Self-Study (ICND Exam): Extending Switched Networks with Virtual LANs 

Q50. - (Topic 2) 

What can cause two OSPF neighbors to be stuck in the EXSTART state? 

A. There is a low bandwidth connection between neighbors. 

B. The neighbors have different MTU settings. 

C. The OSPF interfaces are in a passive state. 

D. There is only layer one connectivity between neighbors. 



Neighbors Stuck in Exstart/Exchange State The problem occurs most frequently when attempting to run OSPF between a Cisco router and another vendor's router. The problem occurs when the maximum transmission unit (MTU) settings for neighboring router interfaces don't match. If the router with the higher MTU sends a packet larger that the MTU set on the neighboring router, the neighboring router ignores the packet.0 When this problem occurs, the output of the show ip ospf neighbor command displays output similar that shown below: router-6# show ip ospf neighbor 

Neighbor ID Pri State Dead Time Address Interface 1 EXCHANGE/ - 00:00:36 Serial2.7 router-6# router-7# show ip ospf neighbor 

Neighbor ID Pri State Dead Time Address Interface 1 EXSTART/ - 00:00:33 Serial0.6