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Q151. The programmers on your team are analyzing the free, open source software being used to run FTP services on a server. They notice that there is an excessive number of fgets() and gets() on the source code. These C++ functions do not check bounds. 

What kind of attack is this program susceptible to? 

A. Buffer of Overflow 

B. Denial of Service 

C. Shatter Attack 

D. Password Attack 

Answer: A

Explanation: C users must avoid using dangerous functions that do not check bounds unless they've ensured that the bounds will never get exceeded. A buffer overflow occurs when you write a set of values (usually a string of characters) into a fixed length buffer and write at least one value outside that buffer's boundaries (usually past its end). A buffer overflow can occur when reading input from the user into a buffer, but it can also occur during other kinds of processing in a program. 


Q152. You are having problems while retrieving results after performing port scanning during internal testing. You verify that there are no security devices between you and the target system. When both stealth and connect scanning do not work, you decide to perform a NULL scan with NMAP. The first few systems scanned shows all ports open. 

Which one of the following statements is probably true? 

A. The systems have all ports open. 

B. The systems are running a host based IDS. 

C. The systems are web servers. 

D. The systems are running Windows. 

Answer: D

Explanation: The null scan turns off all flags, creating a lack of TCP flags that should never occur in the real world. If the port is closed, a RST frame should be returned and a null scan to an open port results in no response. Unfortunately Microsoft (like usual) decided to completely ignore the standard and do things their own way. Thus this scan type will not work against systems running Windows as they choose not to response at all. This is a good way to distinguish that the system being scanned is running Microsoft Windows. 


Q153. Global deployment of RFC 2827 would help mitigate what classification of attack? 

A. Sniffing attack 

B. Denial of service attack 

C. Spoofing attack 

D. Reconnaissance attack 

E. Prot Scan attack 

Answer: C

Explanation: RFC 2827 - Network Ingress Filtering: Defeating Denial of Service Attacks which employ IP Source Address Spoofing 


Q154. Which of the following commands runs snort in packet logger mode? 

A. ./snort -dev -h ./log 

B. ./snort -dev -l ./log 

C. ./snort -dev -o ./log 

D. ./snort -dev -p ./log 

Answer: B

Explanation: Note: If you want to store the packages in binary mode for later analysis use ./snort -l ./log -b 


Q155. Bill has successfully executed a buffer overflow against a Windows IIS web server. He has been able to spawn an interactive shell and plans to deface the main web page. He first attempts to use the “Echo” command to simply overwrite index.html and remains unsuccessful. He then attempts to delete the page and achieves no progress. Finally, he tries to overwrite it with another page again in vain. 

What is the probable cause of Bill’s problem? 

A. The system is a honeypot. 

B. There is a problem with the shell and he needs to run the attack again. 

C. You cannot use a buffer overflow to deface a web page. 

D. The HTML file has permissions of ready only. 

Answer: D

Explanation: The question states that Bill had been able to spawn an interactive shell. By this statement we can tell that the buffer overflow and its corresponding code was enough to spawn a shell. Any shell should make it possible to change the webpage. So we either don’t have sufficient privilege to change the webpage (answer D) or it’s a honeypot (answer A). We think the preferred answer is D 


Leading 312-50 practice exam:

Q156. Most cases of insider abuse can be traced to individuals who are introverted, incapable of dealing with stress or conflict, and frustrated with their job, office politics, and lack of respect or promotion. Disgruntled employees may pass company secrets and intellectual property to competitors for monitory benefits. 

Here are some of the symptoms of a disgruntled employee: 

a. Frequently leaves work early, arrive late or call in sick 

b. Spends time surfing the Internet or on the phone 

c. Responds in a confrontational, angry, or overly aggressive way to simple requests or comments 

d. Always negative; finds fault with everything 

These disgruntled employees are the biggest threat to enterprise security. How do you deal with these threats? (Select 2 answers) 

A. Limit access to the applications they can run on their desktop computers and enforce strict work hour rules 

B. By implementing Virtualization technology from the desktop to the data centre, organizations can isolate different environments with varying levels of access and security to various employees 

C. Organizations must ensure that their corporate data is centrally managed and delivered to users just and when needed 

D. Limit Internet access, e-mail communications, access to social networking sites and job hunting portals 

Answer: BC


Q157. What is the expected result of the following exploit? 

A. Opens up a telnet listener that requires no username or password. 

B. Create a FTP server with write permissions enabled. 

C. Creates a share called “sasfile” on the target system. 

D. Creates an account with a user name of Anonymous and a password of noone@nowhere.com. 

Answer: A

Explanation: The script being depicted is in perl (both msadc.pl and the script their using as a wrapper) -- $port, $your, $user, $pass, $host are variables that hold the port # of a DNS server, an IP, username, and FTP password. $host is set to argument variable 0 (which means the string typed directly after the command). Essentially what happens is it connects to an FTP server and downloads nc.exe (the TCP/IP swiss-army knife -- netcat) and uses nc to open a TCP port spawning cmd.exe (cmd.exe is the Win32 DOS shell on NT/2000/2003/XP), cmd.exe when spawned requires NO username or password and has the permissions of the username it is being executed as (probably guest in this instance, although it could be administrator). The #'s in the script means the text following is a comment, notice the last line in particular, if the # was removed the script would spawn a connection to itself, the host system it was running on. 


Q158. What is Form Scalpel used for? 

A. Dissecting HTML Forms 

B. Dissecting SQL Forms 

C. Analysis of Access Database Forms 

D. Troubleshooting Netscape Navigator 

E. Quatro Pro Analysis Tool 

Answer: A

Explanation: Form Scalpel automatically extracts forms from a given web page and splits up all fields for editing and manipulation. 


Q159. What is the disadvantage of an automated vulnerability assessment tool? 

A. Ineffective 

B. Slow C. Prone to false positives 

D. Prone to false negatives 

E. Noisy 

Answer:

Explanation: Vulnerability assessment tools perform a good analysis of system vulnerabilities; however, they are noisy and will quickly trip IDS systems. 


Q160. Attacking well-known system defaults is one of the most common hacker attacks. Most software is shipped with a default configuration that makes it easy to install and setup the application. You should change the default settings to secure the system. 

Which of the following is NOT an example of default installation? 

A. Many systems come with default user accounts with well-known passwords that administrators forget to change 

B. Often, the default location of installation files can be exploited which allows a hacker to retrieve a file from the system 

C. Many software packages come with "samples" that can be exploited, such as the sample programs on IIS web services 

D. Enabling firewall and anti-virus software on the local system 

Answer: D