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Q51. SNMP is a protocol used to query hosts, servers and devices about performance or health status data. Hackers have used this protocol for a long time to gather great amount of information about remote hosts. Which of the following features makes this possible?
A. It is susceptible to sniffing
B. It uses TCP as the underlying protocol
C. It is used by ALL devices on the market
D. It uses a community string sent as clear text
Explanation: SNMP uses UDP, not TCP, and even though many devices uses SNMP not ALL devices use it and it can be disabled on most of the devices that does use it. However SNMP is susceptible to sniffing and the community string (which can be said acts as a password) is sent in clear text.
Q52. home/root # traceroute www.targetcorp.com <http://www.targetcorp.com>
traceroute to www.targetcorp.com <http://www.targetcorp.com> (192.168.12.18), 64 hops may, 40 byte packets 1 router.anon.com (188.8.131.52) 1.373 ms 1.123 ms 1.280 ms 2 184.108.40.206 (220.127.116.11) 3.680 ms 3.506 ms 4.583 ms 3 firewall.anon.com (18.104.22.168) 127.189 ms 257.404 ms 208.484 ms 4 anon-gw.anon.com (22.214.171.124) 471.68 ms 376.875 ms 228.286 ms 5 fe5-0.lin.isp.com (126.96.36.199) 2.961 ms 3.852 ms 2.974 ms 6 fe0-0.lon0.isp.com (188.8.131.52) 3.979 ms 3.243 ms 4.370 ms 7 184.108.40.206 (220.127.116.11) 11.454 ms 4.221 ms 3.333 ms 6 * * * 7 * * * 8 www.targetcorp.com <http://www.targetcorp.com> (192.168.12.18) 5.392 ms 3.348 ms 3.199 ms
Use the traceroute results shown above to answer the following question:
The perimeter security at targetcorp.com does not permit ICMP TTL-expired packets out.
Explanation: As seen in the exhibit there is 2 registrations with timeout, this tells us that the firewall filters packets where the TTL has reached 0, when you continue with higher starting values for TTL you will get an answer from the target of the traceroute.
Q53. Richard is a network Administrator working at a student loan company in lowa. This company processes over 20,000 students loan a year from colleges all over the state. Most communication between the company, schools and lenders is carried out through email. Because of privacy laws that are in the process of being implemented, Richard wants to get ahead of the game and become compliant before any sort of auditing occurs. Much of the email communication used at his company contains sensitive information such as social security numbers. For this reason, Richard wants to utilize email encryption agency-wide. The only problem for Richard is that his department only has couple of servers and they are utilized to their full capacity. Since a server-based PKI is not an option for him, he is looking for a low/no cost solution to encrypt email.
What should Richard use?
Explanation: PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) is an encryption program being used for secure transmission of files and e-mails. This adapts public-key encryption technology in which pairs of keys are used to maintain secure communication. For PGP-based communication both the sender and receiver should have public and private key pairs. The sender's public key should be distributed to the receiver. Similarly, the receiver's public key should be distributed to the sender. When sending a message or a file, the sender can sign using his private key. Also, the sender's private key is never distributed. All encryption is made on the workstation sending the e-mail.
Q54. According to the CEH methodology, what is the next step to be performed after footprinting?
C. System Hacking
D. Social Engineering
E. Expanding Influence
Explanation: Once footprinting has been completed, scanning should be attempted next.
Scanning should take place on two distinct levels: network and host.
Q55. What is SYSKEY # of bits used for encryption?
Explanation: System Key hotfix is an optional feature which allows stronger encryption of SAM. Strong encryption protects private account information by encrypting the password data using a 128-bit cryptographically random key, known as a password encryption key.
Q56. Which one of the following attacks will pass through a network layer intrusion detection system undetected?
A. A teardrop attack
B. A SYN flood attack
C. A DNS spoofing attack
D. A test.cgi attack
Explanation: Because a network-based IDS reviews packets and headers, it can also detect denial of service (DoS) attacks
Not A or B:
The following sections discuss some of the possible DoS attacks available.
Smurf Fraggle SYN Flood Teardrop DNS DoS Attacks”
Q57. Sara is making use of Digest Authentication for her Web site. Why is this considered to be more secure than Basic authentication?
A. Basic authentication is broken
B. The password is never sent in clear text over the network
C. The password sent in clear text over the network is never reused.
D. It is based on Kerberos authentication protocol
Explanation: Digest access authentication is one of the agreed methods a web page can use to negotiate credentials with a web user (using the HTTP protocol). This method builds upon (and obsoletes) the basic authentication scheme, allowing user identity to be established without having to send a password in plaintext over the network.
Q58. The SYN Flood attack sends TCP connections requests faster than a machine can process them.
Attacker creates a random source address for each packet. SYN flag set in each packet is a request to open a new connection to the server from the spoofed IP Address Victim responds to spoofed IP Address then waits for confirmation that never arrives (timeout wait is about 3 minutes) Victim’s connection table fills up waiting for replies and ignores new connection legitimate users are ignored and will not be able to access the server
How do you protect your network against SYN Flood attacks?
A. SYN cookies. Instead of allocating a record, send a SYN-ACK with a carefully constructed sequence number generated as a hash of the clients IP Address port number and other information. When the client responds with a normal ACK, that special sequence number will be included, which the server then verifies. Thus the server first allocates memory on the third packet of the handshake, not the first.
B. RST cookies – The server sends a wrong SYN|ACK back to the client. The client should then generate a RST packet telling the server that something is wrong. At this point, the server knows the client is valid and will now accept incoming connections from that client normally.
C. Micro Blocks. Instead of allocating a complete connection, simply allocate a micro-record of 16-bytes for the incoming SYN object.
D. Stack Tweaking. TCP can be tweaked in order to reduce the effect of SYN floods. Reduce the timeout before a stack frees up the memory allocated for a connection.
Explanation: All above helps protecting against SYN flood attacks. Most TCP/IP stacks today are already tweaked to make it harder to perform a SYN flood DOS attack against a target.
Q59. Jenny a well known hacker scanning to remote host of 18.104.22.168 using nmap. She got the scanned output but she saw that 25 port states is filtered. What is the meaning of filtered port State?
A. Can Accessible
B. Filtered by firewall
D. None of above
Explanation: The state is either open, filtered, closed, or unfiltered. Filtered means that a firewall, filter, or other network obstacle is blocking the port so that Nmap cannot tell whether it is open or closed.
Q60. Which definition among those given below best describes a covert channel?
A. A server program using a port that is not well known.
B. Making use of a protocol in a way it is not intended to be used.
C. It is the multiplexing taking place on a communication link.
D. It is one of the weak channels used by WEP which makes it insecure.
Explanation: A covert channel is described as: "any communication channel that can be exploited by a process to transfer information in a manner that violates the systems security policy."
Essentially, it is a method of communication that is not part of an actual computer system design, but can be used to transfer information to users or system processes that normally would not be allowed access to the information.