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2021 Jun 400-101 Study Guide Questions:

Q141. Which statement about VRRP is true? 

A. It supports load balancing. 

B. It can be configured with HSRP on a switch or switch stack. 

C. It supports IPv4 and IPv6. 

D. It supports encrypted authentication. 

Answer: B 


VRRP Limitations 

. You can configure both HSRP and VRRP on a switch or switch stack. However, you cannot add a switch model that supports only one protocol to a stack that is configured for both protocols. 

. The VRRP implementation on the switch does not support the MIB specified in RFC 2787. 

. The VRRP implementation on the switch supports only text -based authentication. 

. The switch supports VRRP only for IPv4. 

Reference: 2-2_58_se/configuration/guide/3750xscg/swhsrp.html#pgfId-1107127 

Q142. Which command sets the maximum segment size for a TCP packet initiated from a router? 

A. ip mtu 

B. ip tcp adjust-mss 

C. ip tcp mss 

D. ip tcp window-size 

Answer: C 

Q143. Which statement is true about VPLS? 

A. MPLS is not required for VPLS to work. 

B. VPLS carries packets as Layer 3 multicast. 

C. VPLS has been introduced to address some shortcomings of OTV. 

D. VPLS requires an MPLS network. 

Answer: D 


VPLS uses MPLS labels so an MPLS network is required. VPLS MPLS packets have a two-label stack. The outer label is used for normal MPLS forwarding in the service provider's network. If BGP is used to establish the VPLS, the inner label is allocated by a PE as part of a label block. If LDP is used, the inner label is a virtual circuit ID assigned by LDP when it first established a mesh between the participating PEs. Every PE keeps track of assigned inner label, and associates these with the VPLS instance. 


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Most up-to-date nb 400-101:

Q144. Which protocol uses a proprietary 2-byte Type field for multiple protocol support? 





Answer: A 

Q145. Which three statements about Cisco HDLC are true? (Choose three.) 

A. HDLC serial encapsulation provides asynchronous framing and error detection. 

B. Serial link keepalives are maintained by SLARP. 

C. HDLC serial encapsulation provides synchronous framing without retransmission. 

D. HDLC frame size can be reduced with MPPC compression. 

E. The interface is brought down after five ignored keepalives. 

F. The interface is brought down after three ignored keepalives. 

Answer: B,C,F 


Cisco High-Level Data Link Controller (HDLC) is the Cisco proprietary protocol for sending data over synchronous serial links using HDLC. Cisco HDLC also provides a simple control protocol called Serial Line Address Resolution Protocol (SLARP) to maintain serial link keepalives. For each encapsulation type, a certain number of keepalives ignored by a peer triggers the serial interface to transition to the down state. For HDLC encapsulation, three ignored keepalives causes the interface to be brought down. By default, synchronous serial lines use the High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC) serial encapsulation method, which provides the synchronous framing and error detection functions of HDLC without windowing or retransmission. 

Reference: 819_SCG/6ser_conf.html#78662 

Q146. Which two message types allow PIM snooping to forward multicast traffic? (Choose two.) 

A. hello messages 

B. leave messages 

C. membership query messages 

D. bidirectional PIM DF election messages 

Answer: A,D

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Q147. Which two statements about MPLS VPNs are true? (Choose two.) 

A. PE routers maintain customer routes in the VPN for that customer. 

B. They use the explicit-null label by default. 

C. P routers are used only for label transit. 

D. P routers maintain customer routes in the VPN for that customer. 

E. They support only one route target. 

F. Each interface on a PE router must have its own VRF. 

Answer: A,C 

Q148. Which three components comprise the structure of a pseudowire FEC element? (Choose three.) 

A. pseudowire ID 

B. pseudowire type 

C. control word 

D. Layer 3 PDU 

E. header checksum 

F. type of service 

Answer: A,B,C 


The Pseudowire ID FEC element has the following components: 

. Pseudowire ID FEC — The first octet has a value of 128 that identifies it as a Pseudowire ID FEC element. 

. Control Word Bit (C-Bit) — The C-bit indicates whether the advertising PE expects the control word to be present for pseudowire packets. A control word is an optional 4-byte field located between the MPLS label stack and the Layer 2 payload in the pseudowire packet. The control word carries generic and Layer 2 payload-specific information. If the C-bit is set to 1, the advertising PE expects the control word to be present in every pseudowire packet on the pseudowire that is being signaled. If the C-bit is set to 0, no control word is expected to be present. 

. Pseudowire Type — PW Type is a 15-bit field that represents the type of pseudowire. Examples of pseudowire types are shown in Table 6-1. 

. Pseudowire Information Length — Pseudowire Information Length is the length of the Pseudowire ID field and the interface parameters in octets. When the length is set to 0, this FEC element stands for all pseudowires using the specified Group ID. The Pseudowire ID and Interface Parameters fields are not present. 

. Group ID — The Group ID field is a 32-bit arbitrary value that is assigned to a group of pseudowires. 

. Pseudowire ID — The Pseudowire ID, also known as VC ID, is a non-zero, 32-bit identifier that distinguishes one pseudowire from another. To connect two attachment circuits through a pseudowire, you need to associate each one with the same Pseudowire ID. 

. Interface Parameters — The variable-length Interface Parameters field provides attachment circuit-specific information, such as interface MTU, maximum number of concatenated ATM cells, interface description, and so on. 


Q149. Which three events can cause a control plane to become overwhelmed? (Choose three.) 

A. a worm attack 

B. processing a stream of jumbo packets 

C. a microburst 

D. a configuration error 

E. a reconvergence failure 

F. a device-generated FTP session 

Answer: A,D,E 

Q150. Which option describes how a router responds if LSA throttling is configured and it receives the identical LSA before the interval is set? 

A. The LSA is added to the OSPF database and a notification is sent to the sending router to slow down its LSA packet updates. 

B. The LSA is added to the OSPF database. 

C. The LSA is ignored. 

D. The LSA is ignored and a notification is sent to the sending router to slow down its LSA packet updates. 

Answer: C 


How OSPF LSA Throttling Works 

The timers throttle lsa all command controls the generation (sending) of LSAs. The first LSA is always generated immediately upon an OSPF topology change, and the next LSA generated is controlled by the minimum start interval. The subsequent LSAs generated for the same LSA are rate-limited until the maximum interval is reached. The "same LSA" is defined as an LSA instance that contains the same LSA ID number, LSA type, and advertising router ID. 

The timers LSA arrival command controls the minimum interval for accepting the same LSA. If an instance of the same LSA arrives sooner than the interval that is set, the LSA is dropped. It is recommended that the arrival interval be less than or equal to the hold-time interval of the timers throttle lsa all command.