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2021 Jun 400-101 exam topics

Q421. In which two modes do IPv6-in-IPv4 tunnels operate? (Choose two.) 

A. tunnel mode 

B. transport mode 

C. 6to4 mode 

D. 4to6 mode 

E. ISATAP mode 

Answer: C,E 


*There are 5 tunneling solution in IPv6:* 

*1. Using the “Tunnel mode ipv6ip”, in this case the tunnel source and destination are configured with IPv4 addressing and the tunnel interface is configured with IPv6. This will use protocol 41. This is used for IPv6/IPv4. 

R1(config)#int tunnel 1 

R1(config-if)#ipv6 address 12:1:12::1/64 

R1(config-if)#tunnel source 

R1(config-if)#tunnel destination 

R1(config-if)#*tunnel mode ipv6ip* 


2. Using the “Tunnel mode gre ipv6, in this case the tunnel source and destination are all configured with IPv6 addressing. This is used for IPv6/IPv6. 

BB1(config)#int tunnel 1 

BB1(config-if)#ipv6 address 121:1:121::111/64 

BB1(config-if)#tunnel source 10:1:111::111 

BB1(config-if)#tunnel destination 10:1:112::112 

BB1(config-if)#*tunnel mode gre ipv6* 


In this case, the third type, the tunnel mode is NOT used at all, note that the tunnel interface is configured with IPv6 and the tunnel source and destination is configured with IPv4 but no mention of tunnel mode. This configuration will use protocol 47. This is used for IPv6/IPv4. 

R1(config)#int tunnel 13 

R1(config-if)#ipv6 address 13:1:13::1/64 

R1(config-if)#tunnel source 

R1(config-if)#tunnel destination 

*4. Note in this case a special addressing is assigned to the tunnel interface which is a concatenation of a reserved IPv6 address of 2002followed by the translated IPv4 address of a given interface on the router. In this configuration ONLY the tunnel source address is used and since the tunnel is automatic, the destination address is NOT configured. The tunnel mode is set to “Tunnel mode ipv6ip 6to4. Note the IPv4 address of is translated to 0A.01.01.01 and once concatenated, it will be “2002:0A01:0101: or 2002:A01:101. This is used for IPv6/IPv4. 

R1(config)#interface Tunnel14 

R1(config-if)#ipv6 address 2002:A01:101::/128 

R1(config-if)#tunnel source 

R1(config-if)#*tunnel mode ipv6ip 6to4* 

*5. ISATAP, ISATAP works like 6to4 tunnels, with one major difference, it uses a special IPv6 address which is formed as follows: * 

*In this tunnel mode, the network portion can be any IPv6 address, whereas in 6to4 it had to start with 2002.* 

*Note when the IPv6 address is assigned to the tunnel interface, the “eui-64 is used, in this case the host portion of the IPv6 address starts with “0000.5EFE” and then the rest of the host portion is the translated IPv4 address of the tunnel’s source IPv4 address. This translation is performed automatically unlike 6to4. This is used for IPv6/IPv4.* 

R4(config)#int tunnel 46 

R4(config-if)#ipv6 address 46:1:46::/64 eui-64 

R4(config-if)#tunnel source 

R4(config-if)#*tunnel mode ipv6ip ISATAP* 

Q422. Which statement about UDLD is true? 

A. The udld reset command resets ports that have been error-disabled by both UDLD and Fast UDLD. 

B. Fast UDLD is configured in aggressive mode. 

C. Only bidirectional link failures can be detected in normal mode. 

D. Each switch in a UDLD topology can send and receive packets to and from its neighbors. 

Answer: A 

Q423. Refer to the exhibit. 

Which statement is true? 

A. R1 routes this pseudowire over MPLS TE tunnel 1 with transport label 20. 

B. The default route is available in the IPv4 routing table. 

C. R1 is using an MPLS TE tunnel for this pseudowire, because the IP path is not available. 

D. R1 has preferred-path configured for the pseudowire. 

Answer: D 


Verifying the Configuration: Example In the following example, the show mpls l2transport vc command shows the following information (in bold) about the VCs: 

. VC 101 has been assigned a preferred path called Tunnel1. The default path is disabled because the preferred path specified that the default path should not be used if the preferred path fails. 

. VC 150 has been assigned an IP address of a loopback address on PE2. The default path can be used if the preferred path fails. 

Router# show mpls l2transport vc detail 

Local interface. Gi0/0/0.1 up, line protocol up, Eth VLAN 222 up 

Destination address:, VC ID. 101, VC status: up 

Preferred path: Tunnel1, active 

Default path: disabled

Tunnel label: 3, next hop point2point 

Output interfacE. Tu1, imposed label stack {17 16} 

Create timE. 00:27:31, last status change timE. 00:27:31 

Signaling protocol: LDP, peer up 

MPLS VC labels: local 25, remote 16 

Group ID. local 0, remote 6 

MTU: local 1500, remote 1500 

Remote interface description: 

Sequencing: receive disabled, send disabled 

VC statistics: 

packet totals: receive 10, send 10 

byte totals: receive 1260, send 1300 

packet drops: receive 0, send 0 

Reference: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/ios/12_2sr/12_2sra/feature/guide/srtunsel.html#wp10 57815 

Q424. Which two statements about the passive-interface command are true? (Choose two.) 

A. A RIP router listens to multicast updates from its neighbor but stops sending multicast updates on the passive interface. 

B. In OSPF, configuring passive-interface at the interface level suppresses hello packets for the interface and all sub interfaces. 

C. An EIGRP router can form neighbor relationship on the passive interface, but incoming and outgoing multicast updates are disabled on the interface. 

D. A RIP router disables all incoming and outgoing multicast updates in the passive interface. 

E. In EIGRP, the passive interface stops sending hello packets. 

F. In OSPF, the passive interface can receive incoming routing updates and update the device routing table. 

Answer: A,E 

Q425. What are the two requirements for BGP to install a classful network into the BGP routing table? (Choose two) 

A. The AS contains the entire classfull network. 

B. A classful network statement with a lower administrative distance is in the routing table. 

C. Auto-summary is enabled. 

D. A classful network statement with a classful mask is in the routing table. 

E. Synchronization is enabled. 

F. Synchronization is disabled. 

Answer: C,D 

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Q426. Which two protocols are not protected in an edge router by using control plane policing? (Choose two.) 




D. Telnet 

Answer: A,B 


A CoPP policy can limit a number of different packet types that are forwarded to the control plane. Traffic destined for the switch CPU includes: 

. Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) 

. First-hop redundancy protocol packets 

. Layer 2 control packets 

. Management packets (telnet, Secure Shell [SSH] Protocol, Simple Network Management Protocol [SNMP]) <--- C and D are not correct. 

. Multicast control packets 

. Routing protocol packets 

. Packets with IP options 

. Packets with time to live (TTL) set to 1 

. Packets that require ACL logging 

. Packets that require an initial lookup (first packet in a flow: FIB miss) 

. Packets that have don't support hardware switching/routing 

Reference: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/collateral/switches/catalyst-6500-series-switches/white_paper_c11_553261.html 

Q427. Refer to the exhibit. 

Why is the router out of memory? 

A. The router is experiencing a BGP memory leak software defect. 

B. The BGP peers have been up for too long. 

C. The amount of BGP update traffic in the network is too high. 

D. The router has insufficient memory due to the size of the BGP database. 

Answer: D 


Here we can see that this router is running out of memory due to the large size of the BGP routing database. In this case, this router is receiving over 200,000 routes from each of the 4 peers. 

Q428. On which three options can Cisco PfR base its traffic routing? (Choose three.) 

A. Time of day 

B. An access list with permit or deny statements 

C. Load-balancing requirements 

D. Network performance 

E. User-defined link capacity thresholds 

F. Router IOS version 

Answer: C,D,E 


Key Advantages of using PfR for Load balancing: 

. Utilization based load-balancing: PfR takes real-time link utilization into account when load balancing the links. This will ensure that a link will not go beyond a certain percentage of its maximum capacity (75% by default). 

. Application Performance based Load Balancing: PfR does not randomly forward traffic through one link or another. It takes application performance requirements into consideration and then forwards the traffic through a link which meets the performance policy requirements. PfR also load balances the link at the same time. 

. Bi-directional Solution: PfR is a bi-directional load balancing solution which influences outbound as well as in-bound traffic. 

. Consolidated Centralized View: PfR offers consolidated and centralized view of the state of all external links in the network. At any given time, the network administrator can see the current link utilization (in kbps and percentage of its capacity), maximum link threshold, and the policies applied to the links in the network. 

Reference: http://docwiki.cisco.com/wiki/PfR:Solutions:InternetOutboundLoadBalancing 

Q429. Which three routing protocols utilize TLVs? (Choose three.) 







Answer: A,B,E 


IS-IS, originally designed for Open System Interconnection (OSI) routing, uses TLV parameters to carry information in Link State Packets (LSPs). The TLVs make IS-IS extendable. IS-IS can therefore carry different kinds of information in the LSPs. Several routing protocols use TLVs to carry a variety of attributes. Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP), Label Discovery Protocol (LDP), and Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) are examples of protocols that use TLVs. BGP uses TLVs to carry attributes such as Network Layer Reachability Information (NLRI), Multiple Exit Discriminator (MED), and local pReference: The IP header of the EIGRP packet specifies IP protocol number 88 within it, and the maximum length of the packet will be the IP MTU of the interface on which it is transmitted, most of the time 1500 octets. Following the IP header is the various Type/Length/Value (TLV) triplets. These TLVs will not only carry the route entries but also provide fields for the management of the DUAL process, multicast sequencing, and IOS software versions from the router. 

References: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/docs/ip/integrated-intermediate-system-to-intermediate-system-is-is/5739-tlvs-5739.html http://ericleahy.com/index.php/eigrp-packets-neighborships/ 

Q430. Which field is specific to the OPSFv3 packet header, as opposed to the OSPFv2 packet header? 

A. checksum 

B. router ID 

C. AuType 

D. instance ID 

Answer: D 


In OSPFv3, Instance ID is a new field that is used to have multiple OSPF process’ instance per link. By default it is 0 and for any additional instance it is increased, instance ID has local link significance only. OSPFv3 routers will only become neighbors if the instanceIDs match. It is thus possible to have multiple routers on a broadcast domain and all run Ospfv3 but not all of them becoming neighbors. 

Reference: https://supportforums.cisco.com/document/97766/comparing-ospfv3-ospfv2-routing-protocol