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2021 Jul boson 400-101:

Q131. On an MPLS L3VPN, which two tasks are performed by the PE router? (Choose two.) 

A. It exchanges VPNv4 routes with other PE routers. 

B. It typically exchanges iBGP routing updates with the CE device. 

C. It distributes labels and forwards labeled packets. 

D. It exchanges VPNv4 routes with CE devices. 

E. It forwards labeled packets between CE devices. 

Answer: A,C 

Explanation: 

MPLS VPN functionality is enabled at the edge of an MPLS network. The PE router performs these tasks: . 

Exchanges routing updates with the CE router . 

Translates the CE routing information into VPN version 4 (VPNv4) routes . 

Exchanges VPNv4 routes with other PE routers through the Multiprotocol Border Gateway Protocol (MP-BGP) 

A PE router binds a label to each customer prefix learned from a CE router and includes the label in the network reachability information for the prefix that it advertises to other PE routers. When a PE router forwards a packet received from a CE router across the provider network, it labels the packet with the label learned from the destination PE router. When the destination PE router receives the labeled packet, it pops the label and uses it to direct the packet to the correct CE router. Label forwarding across the provider backbone is based on either dynamic label switching or traffic engineered paths. A customer data packet carries two levels of labels when traversing the backbone 

Reference: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/routers/asr9000/software/asr9k_r4-2/lxvpn/configuration/guide/vcasr9kv342/vcasr9k42v3.html 


Q132. DRAG DROP 

Drag and drop the extended ping command field on the left to its usage on the right. 


Answer: 



Q133. Refer to the exhibit. 


The interface FastEthernet0/1 of both routers R4 and R5 is connected to the same Ethernet segment with a multicast receiver. Which two statements are true? (Choose two) 

A. Multicast traffic that is destined to a receiver with IP address 192.168.2.6 will flow through router R4. 

B. Both routers R4 and R5 will send PIM join messages to the RP. 

C. Only router R5 will send a multicast join message to the RP. 

D. Multicast traffic that is destined to a receiver with IP address 192.168.2.6 will flow through router R5. 

Answer: C,D 

Explanation: 

Even though R4 is the active HSRP router, traffic will flow through R5 and only R5 will send the join messages. The Multicast DR is elected by the higher IP address or priority. R5 has 192.168.2.2 and R4 has 192.168.2.1. R5 is the DR which sends all packets to the RP. 


Q134. Which two statements about static NAT are true? (Choose two.) 

A. An outside local address maps to the same outside global IP address. 

B. An inside local address maps to a different inside global IP address. 

C. An outside local address maps to a different outside global IP address. 

D. An inside local address maps to the same inside global IP address. 

Answer: A,D 

Explanation: 

Example found at the reference link below: Reference: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/docs/ip/network-address-translation-nat/4606-8.html 


Q135. Which three fields are part of a TCN BPDU? (Choose three.) 

A. protocol ID 

B. version 

C. type 

D. max-age 

E. flags 

F. message age 

Answer: A,B,C 


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Avant-garde error 400-101:

Q136. Refer to the exhibit. 


Why is the loopback 0 interface of R4 missing in the routing table of R2? 

A. R2 is configured as a route reflector client. 

B. There is no peering between R2 and R3. 

C. The next hop is not reachable from R2. 

D. The route originated within the same AS. 

Answer: B 

Explanation: 

In the “show ip bgp” output we see that there is no peering session between R2 and R3. Since R3 is the route reflector here, R3 would reflect routes advertised from R4 to R2, but the peer needs to be established first. 


Q137. What is a reason for an EIGRP router to send an SIA reply to a peer? 

A. to respond to an SIA query with the alternative path requested 

B. to respond to a query reporting that the prefix has gone stuck-in-active 

C. to respond to an SIA query that the router is still waiting on replies from its peers 

D. to respond to a reply reporting that the prefix has gone stuck-in-active 

Answer: C 


Q138. Which two methods change the IP MTU value for an interface? (Choose two.) 

A. Configure the default MTU. 

B. Configure the IP system MTU. 

C. Configure the interface MTU. 

D. Configure the interface IP MTU. 

Answer: C,D 

Explanation: 

An IOS device configured for IP+MPLS routing uses three different Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) values: The hardware MTU configured with the mtu interface configuration command 

. The IP MTU configured with the ip mtu interface configuration command 

. The MPLS MTU configured with the mpls mtu interface configuration command 

The hardware MTU specifies the maximum packet length the interface can support … or at least that's the theory behind it. In reality, longer packets can be sent (assuming the hardware interface chipset doesn't complain); therefore you can configure MPLS MTU to be larger than the interface MTU and still have a working network. Oversized packets might not be received correctly if the interface uses fixed-length buffers; platforms with scatter/gather architecture (also called particle buffers) usually survive incoming oversized packets. 

IP MTU is used to determine whether am IP packet forwarded through an interface has to be fragmented. It has to be lower or equal to hardware MTU (and this limitation is enforced). If it equals the HW MTU, its value does not appear in the running configuration and it tracks the changes in HW MTU. For example, if you configure ip mtu 1300 on a Serial interface, it will appear in the running configuration as long as the hardware MTU is not equal to 1300 (and will not change as the HW MTU changes). However, as soon as the mtu 1300 is configured, the ip mtu 1300 command disappears from the configuration and the IP MTU yet again tracks the HW MTU. 

Reference: http://blog.ipspace.net/2007/10/tale-of-three-mtus.html 


Q139. Refer to the exhibit. 


A Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Switch experiences high CPU utilization. What can be the cause of this issue, and how can it be prevented? 

A. The hardware routing table is full. Redistribute from BGP into IGP. 

B. The software routing table is full. Redistribute from BGP into IGP. 

C. The hardware routing table is full. Reduce the number of routes in the routing table. 

D. The software routing table is full. Reduce the number of routes in the routing table. 

Answer: C 

Explanation: 

FIB TCAM Exception - If you try to install more routes than are possible into the FIB TCAM you will see the following error message in the logs: 

CFIB-SP-STBY-7-CFIB_EXCEPTION : FIB TCAM exception, Some entries will be software switched 

%CFIB-SP-7-CFIB_EXCEPTION : FIB TCAM exception, Some entries will be software switched. 

%CFIB-SP-STBY-7-CFIB_EXCEPTION : FIB TCAM exception, Some entries will be software switched. 

This error message is received when the amount of available space in the TCAM is exceeded. This results in high CPU. This is a FIB TCAM limitation. Once TCAM is full, a flag will be set and FIB TCAM exception is received. This stops from adding new routes to the TCAM. Therefore, everything will be software switched. The removal of routes does not help resume hardware switching. Once the TCAM enters the exception state, the system must be reloaded to get out of that state. You can view if you have hit a FIB TCAM exception with the following command: 

6500-2#sh mls cef exception status 

Current IPv4 FIB exception state = TRUE 

Current IPv6 FIB exception state = FALSE 

Current MPLS FIB exception state = FALSE 

When the exception state is TRUE, the FIB TCAM has hit an exception. 

The maximum routes that can be installed in TCAM is increased by the mls cef maximum-routes command. 

Reference: https://supportforums.cisco.com/document/59926/troubleshooting-high-cpu-6500-sup720 


Q140. How does EIGRP derive the metric for manual summary routes? 

A. It uses the best composite metric of any component route in the topology table. 

B. It uses the worst composite metric of any component route in the topology table. 

C. It uses the best metric vectors of all component routes in the topology table. 

D. It uses the worst metric vectors of all component routes in the topology table. 

Answer: A 

Explanation: 

For example if your router has a routing table like this: 

D 192.168.8.0/24 [90/2632528] via 192.168.0.1, 00:00:12, Serial0/0 

D 192.168.9.0/24 [90/2323456] via 192.168.0.1, 00:00:12, Serial0/0 

D 192.168.10.0/24 [90/2195456] via 192.168.0.1, 00:00:12, Serial0/0 

D 192.168.11.0/24 [90/2323456] via 192.168.0.1, 00:00:12, Serial0/0 

Now suppose you want to manually summarize all the routes above, you can use this command (on the router that advertised these routes to our router): 

Router(config-if)#ip summary-address eigrp 1 192.168.8.0 255.255.248.0 

After that the routing table of your router will look like this: 

D 192.168.8.0/21 [90/2195456] via 192.168.0.1, 00:01:42, Serial0/0 

And we can see the manual summary route takes the smallest metric of the specific routes.