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Q321. What is the purpose of EIGRP summary leaking? 

A. to allow a summary to be advertised conditionally on specific criteria 

B. to allow a component of a summary to be advertised in addition to the summary 

C. to allow overlapping summaries to exist on a single interface 

D. to modify the metric of the summary based on which components of the summary are operational 

Answer: B 


When you do manual summarization, and still you want to advertise some specific routes to the neighbor, you can do that using leak-map. Please read more about leaking routes here. html#wp1037685. 

Q322. Refer to the exhibit. 

R2 is unable to access the network between R1 and R3. Which option is a possible reason for the failure? 

A. The seed metric for redistributing into RIP on R3 is missing. 

B. The OSPF processes on R2 and R3 are different. 

C. Auto-summary is misconfigured under the RIP process of R3. 

D. The subnet mask on the link between R2 and R3 is smaller than /30. 

E. The wildcard mask on R3 is misconfigured. 

Answer: A 


The problem is that RIP requires a seed metric to be specified when redistributing routes into that protocol. A seed metric is a "starter metric" that gives the RIP process a metric it can work with. The OSPF metric of cost is incomprehensible to RIP, since RIP's sole metric is hop count. 

Reference: l%20Route%20Redistribution%20Seed%20Metric.htm 

Q323. What is a cause for unicast flooding? 

A. Unicast flooding occurs when multicast traffic arrives on a Layer 2 switch that has directly connected multicast receivers. 

B. When PIM snooping is not enabled, unicast flooding occurs on the switch that interconnects the PIM-enabled routers. 

C. A man-in-the-middle attack can cause the ARP cache of an end host to have the wrong MAC address. Instead of having the MAC address of the default gateway, it has a MAC address of the man-in-the-middle. This causes all traffic to be unicast flooded through the man-in-the-middle, which can then sniff all packets. 

D. Forwarding table overflow prevents new MAC addresses from being learned, and packets destined to those MAC addresses are flooded until space becomes available in the forwarding table. 

Answer: D 


Causes of Flooding The very cause of flooding is that destination MAC address of the packet is not in the L2 forwarding table of the switch. In this case the packet will be flooded out of all forwarding ports in its VLAN (except the port it was received on). Below case studies display most common reasons for destination MAC address not being known to the switch. 

Cause 1: Asymmetric Routing 

Large amounts of flooded traffic might saturate low-bandwidth links causing network performance issues or complete connectivity outage to devices connected across such low-bandwidth links 

Cause 2: Spanning-Tree Protocol Topology Changes 

Another common issue caused by flooding is Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP) Topology Change Notification (TCN). TCN is designed to correct forwarding tables after the forwarding topology has changed. This is necessary to avoid a connectivity outage, as after a topology change some destinations previously accessible via particular ports might become accessible via different ports. TCN operates by shortening the forwarding table aging time, such that if the address is not relearned, it will age out and flooding will occur 

Cause 3: Forwarding Table Overflow 

Another possible cause of flooding can be overflow of the switch forwarding table. In this case, new addresses cannot be learned and packets destined to such addresses are flooded until some space becomes available in the forwarding table. New addresses will then be learned. This is possible but rare, since most modern switches have large enough forwarding tables to accommodate MAC addresses for most designs. 


Q324. What is the hop limit for an MLD message? 

A. 1 

B. 2 

C. 15 

D. 255 

Answer: A 


MLD uses the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) to carry its messages. All MLD messages are link-local with a hop limit of 1, and they all have the alert option set. The alert option implies an implementation of the hop-by-hop option header. 


Q325. You are configuring a DMVPN spoke to use IPsec over a physical interface that is located within a VRF. For which three configuration sections must you specify the VRF name? (Choose three.) 

A. the ISAKMP profile 

B. the crypto keyring 

C. the IPsec profile 

D. the IPsec transform set 

E. the tunnel interface 

F. the physical interface 

Answer: B,E,F 


ip vrf forwardingvrf-name 


Router(config-if)# ip vrf forwarding green 

Associates a virtual private network (VPN) routing and forwarding (VRF) instance with an interface or subinterface. 

. vrf-name is the name assigned to a VRF. 

Router(config-if)# tunnel vrfvrf-name 


Router(config-if)# tunnel vrf finance1 

Associates a VPN routing and forwarding (VRF) instance with a specific tunnel destination. vrf-name is the name assigned to a VRF. 

Router(config)# crypto keyringkeyring-name [vrf fvrf-name] 

Defines a crypto keyring to be used during IKE authentication and enters keyring configuration mode. 

. keyring-name—Name of the crypto keyring. 

. fvrf-name—(Optional) Front door virtual routing and forwarding (FVRF) name to which the keyring will be referenced. fvrf-name must match the FVRF name that was defined during virtual routing and forwarding (VRF) configuration 

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Q326. You are configuring a DHCPv6 client for a DHCPv6 server with the prefix delegation feature. Which option is a result of the interface configuration when you enter the command ipv6 address autoconfig default? 

A. a static IPv6 default route pointing to the upstream DHCP server 

B. a static IPv6 default route pointing to the upstream DHCP relay 

C. a static IPv6 default route pointing to the upstream router 

D. a temporary stateless address, formed from the EUI-64 bit address and the prefix from the route advertisement of the upstream router 

Answer: A 

Q327. Assume that the following MAC addresses are used for the bridge ID MAC address by four different switches in a network. Which switch will be elected as the spanning-tree root bridge? 

A. SwitchA uses MAC 1000.AA-AA-AA-AA-AA-AA. 

B. SwitchB uses MAC 2000.BB-BB-BB-BB-BB-BB. 

C. SwitchC uses MAC 3000.CC-CC-CC-CC-CC-CC. 

D. SwitchD uses MAC 4000.DD-DD-DD-DD-DD-DD. 

Answer: A 


The switch with the highest switch priority (the lowest numerical priority value) is elected as the root switch. If all switches are configured with the default priority (32768), the switch with the lowest MAC address in the VLAN becomes the root switch. 


Q328. Refer to the exhibit. 

R1, R2, and R3 have full network connectivity to each other, but R2 prefers the path through R3 to reach network Which two actions can you take so that R2 prefers the path through R1 to reach (Choose two.) 

A. Set the reference bandwidth to 10000 on R1, R2, and R3. 

B. Configure the cost on the link between R1 and R3 to be greater than 100 Mbps. 

C. Set the reference bandwidth on R2 only. 

D. Configure a manual bandwidth statement with a value of 1 Gbps on the link between R1 and R3. 

E. Modify the cost on the link between R1 and R2 to be greater than 10 Gbps. 

F. Configure a manual bandwidth statement with a value of 100 Mbps on the link between R1 and R2. 

Answer: A,B 


By default, the reference bandwidth used in Cisco routers is 100Mbps, so FastEthernet and above will have a cost of 1, so a gigabit interface and 10GE interface will be equal with a fastethernet. This is not ideal. If we change the reference bandwidth to 100000 then the faster links will be used. Changing the reference bandwidth needs to be done on all routers in the OSPF network. Increasing the cost on the R1-R3 link will also cause the traffic to take the more direct route. 

Q329. Which three statements about the differences between Cisco IOS and IOS-XE functionality are true? (Choose three.) 

A. Only IOS-XE Software can host applications outside of the IOS context. 

B. Only the IOS-XE Services Plane has multiple cores. 

C. Only the IOS-XE Data Plane has multiple cores. 

D. Only the IOS-XE Control Plane has multiple cores. 

E. Only IOS-XE module management integrates with packet processing. 

F. Only IOS-XE configuration and control is integrated with the kernel. 

Answer: A,B,C 

Q330. What is the main component of Unified MPLS? 

A. Multiple IGPs in the network are used, where the loopback IP addresses of the PE routers are aggregated on the area border routers. 

B. Confederations are used to provide scalability. 

C. The loopback prefixes from one IGP area are redistributed into BGP without changing the next hop. 

D. The ABR is a BGP route reflector and sets next-hop to self for all reflected routes. 

Answer: D 


Since the core and aggregation parts of the network are integrated and end-to-end LSPs are provided, the Unified MPLS solution is also referred to as "Seamless MPLS." New technologies or protocols are not used here, only MPLS, Label Distribution Protocol (LDP), IGP, and BGP. Since you do not want to distribute the loopback prefixes of the PE routers from one part of the network into another part, you need to carry the prefixes in BGP. The Internal Border Gateway Protocol (iBGP) is used in one network, so the next hop address of the prefixes is the loopback prefixes of the PE routers, which is not known by the IGP in the other parts of the network. This means that the next hop address cannot be used to recurse to an IGP prefix. The trick is to make the ABR routers Route Reflectors (RR) and set the next hop to self, even for the reflected iBGP prefixes. In order for this to work, a new knob is needed.