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2021 Dec cisco 400-101:

Q311. What is the cause of ignores and overruns on an interface, when the overall traffic rate of the interface is low? 

A. a hardware failure of the interface 

B. a software bug 

C. a bad cable 

D. microbursts of traffic 

Answer:

Explanation: 

Micro-bursting is a phenomenon where rapid bursts of data packets are sent in quick succession, leading to periods of full line-rate transmission that can overflow packet buffers of the network stack, both in network endpoints and routers and switches inside the network. Symptoms of micro bursts will manifest in the form of ignores and/ or overruns (also shown as accumulated in “input error” counter within show interface output). This is indicative of receive ring and corresponding packet buffer being overwhelmed due to data bursts coming in over extremely short period of time (microseconds). You will never see a sustained data traffic within show interface’s “input rate” counter as they are averaging bits per second (bps) over 5 minutes by default (way too long to account for microbursts). You can understand microbursts from a scenario where a 3-lane highway merging into a single lane at rush hour – the capacity burst cannot exceed the total available bandwidth (i.e. single lane), but it can saturate it for a period of time. 

Reference: http://ccieordie.com/?tag=micro-burst 


Q312. Which two statements are true about an EPL? (Choose two.) 

A. It is a point-to-point Ethernet connection between a pair of NNIs. 

B. It allows for service multiplexing. 

C. It has a high degree of transparency. 

D. The EPL service is also referred to as E-line. 

Answer: C,D 

Explanation: 

Ethernet private line (EPL) and Ethernet virtual private line (EVPL) are carrier Ethernet data services defined by the Metro Ethernet Forum. EPL provides a point-to-point Ethernet virtual connection (EVC) between a pair of dedicated user–network interfaces (UNIs), with a high degree of transparency. EVPL provides a point-to-point or point-to-multipoint connection between a pair of UNIs. The services are categorized as an E-Line service type, with an expectation of low frame delay, frame delay variation and frame loss ratio. EPL is implemented using a point-to-point (EVC) with no Service Multiplexing at each UNI (physical interface), i.e., all service frames at the UNI are mapped to a single EVC (a.k.a. all-to-one bundling). 

Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethernet_Private_Line 


Q313. Which two statements about NPTv6 are true? (Choose two.) 

A. The translation is invisible to applications that hard code IP information within the application logic. 

B. It is a one-way stateful translation for the IPv6 address. 

C. Translation is 1:1 at the network layer. 

D. It is a two-way stateless translation for the network prefix. 

Answer: C,D 

Explanation: 

This document describes a stateless, transport-agnostic IPv6-to-IPv6 Network Prefix Translation (NPTv6) function that provides the address-independence benefit associated with IPv4-to-IPv4 NAT (NAPT44) and provides a 1:1 relationship between addresses in the "inside" and "outside" prefixes, preserving end-to-end reachability at the network layer NPTv6 Translation is stateless, so a "reset" or brief outage of an NPTv6 Translator does not break connections that traverse the translation function, and if multiple NPTv6 Translators exist between the same two networks, the load can shift or be dynamically load shared among them. NPTv6 is defined to include a two-way, checksum-neutral, algorithmic translation function, and nothing else. 

Reference: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6296 


Q314. Refer to the exhibit. 

Which three statements about the output are true? (Choose three.) 

A. An mrouter port can be learned by receiving a PIM hello packet from a multicast router. 

B. This switch is configured as a multicast router. 

C. Gi2/0/1 is a trunk link that connects to a multicast router. 

D. An mrouter port is learned when a multicast data stream is received on that port from a multicast router. 

E. This switch is not configured as a multicast router. It is configured only for IGMP snooping. 

F. IGMP reports are received only on Gi2/0/1 and are never transmitted out Gi2/0/1 for VLANs 10 and 20. 

Answer: A,B,C 

Explanation: 

In this example, the switch has been configured as a multicast router since IGMP snooping has been enabled. All mrouters can learn about other mrouters by receiving a PIM hello packet from another multicast router. Also, since two different VLANs are being used by the same port of gi 2/0/1, it must be a trunk link that connects to another multicast router. 


Q315. Which two statements about OSPF route types are true? (Choose two.) 

A. The cost of an external type 2 route is the sum of the external and internal costs. 

B. The cost of an external type 2 route is the same as the external cost. 

C. Intra-area routes originate outside of their area. 

D. Inter-area routes originate inside their area. 

E. The cost of an external type 1 route is the same as the internal cost. 

F. For routes to the same destination, external type 1 routes are preferred over external type 2 routes. 

Answer: B,F 

Explanation: 

External routes fall under two categories, external type 1 and external type 2. The difference between the two is in the way the cost (metric) of the route is being calculated. The cost of a type 2 route is always the external cost, irrespective of the interior cost to reach that route. A type 1 cost is the addition of the external cost and the internal cost used to reach that route. A type 1 route is always preferred over a type 2 route for the same destination. 

Reference: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/docs/ip/open-shortest-path-first-ospf/7039-1.html 


Down to date ccie written exam:

Q316. DRAG DROP 

Drag and drop each BGP feature on the left to the corresponding function it performs on the right. 

Answer: 


Q317. DRAG DROP 

What is the correct order of the VSS initialization process? Drag the actions on the left to the correct initialization step on the right. 

Answer: 


Q318. You are tasked with configuring a router on an OSPF domain to import routes from an EIGRP domain and summarize the routes to 192.168.64.0. 

Which statement configures the summarized route and provides equal-path route redundancy? 

A. area 32 range 192.168.64.0 255.255.192.0 cost 100 

B. area 32 range 192.168.64.0 255.255.63.0 cost 100 

C. area 32 range 192.168.64.0 255.255.64.0 cost 100 

D. area 32 range 192.168.64.0 255.255.192.0 multi-path 

Answer:

Explanation: 

area range 

To consolidate and summarize routes at an area boundary, use the area range command in router configuration mode. To disable this function, use the no form of this command. 

Syntax Description 

area-id 

Identifier of the area about which routes are to be summarized. It can be specified as either a decimal value or as an IP address. 

ip-address 

IP address. 

mask 

IP address mask. 

advertise 

(Optional) Sets the address range status to advertise and generates a Type 3 summary link-state advertisement (LSA). 

not-advertise 

(Optional) Sets the address range status to DoNotAdvertise. The Type 3 summary LSA is suppressed, and the component networks remain hidden from other networks. 

cost cost 

(Optional) Metric or cost for this summary route, which is used during OSPF SPF calculation to determine the shortest paths to the destination. The value can be 0 to 16777215. 

Reference: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/ios/12_2/iproute/command/reference/fiprrp_r/1rfospf. html#wp1017596 


Q319. Which VPN technology requires the use of an external key server? 

A. GETVPN 

B. GDOI 

C. SSL 

D. DMVPN 

E. IPsec F. L2TPv3 

Answer:

Explanation: 

A GETVPN deployment has primarily three components, Key Server (KS), Group Member (GM), and Group Domain of Interpretation (GDOI) protocol. GMs do encrypt/decrypt the traffic and KS distribute the encryption key to all the group members. The KS decides on one single data encryption key for a given life time. Since all GMs use the same key, any GM can decrypt the traffic encrypted by any other GM. GDOI protocol is used between the GM and KS for group key and group SA management. Minimum one KS is required for a GETVPN deployment. 

Reference: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/collateral/security/group-encrypted-transport-vpn/deployment_guide_c07_554713.html 


Q320. Refer to the exhibit. 

What is wrong with the configuration of this tunnel interface? 

A. ISATAP tunnels cannot use the EUI-64 address format. 

B. No tunnel destination has been specified. 

C. The tunnel source of an ISATAP tunnel must always point to a loopback interface. 

D. Router advertisements are disabled on this tunnel interface. 

Answer:

Explanation: 

Sending of IPv6 router advertisements is disabled by default on tunnel interfaces. This command reenables the sending of IPv6 router advertisements to allow client autoconfiguration: 

Example: Router(config-if)# no ipv6 nd ra suppress 

Reference: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/ios-xml/ios/interface/configuration/xe-3s/ir-xe-3s-book/ip6-isatap-xe.html