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Q411. What is the new designation for the MPLS EXP (experimental) bits?
A. QoS bits
B. traffic class bits
C. flow bits
D. precedence bits
To avoid misunderstanding about how this field may be used, it has become increasingly necessary to rename this field. This document changes the name of the EXP field to the "Traffic Class field" ("TC field"). In doing so, it also updates documents that define the current use of the EXP field.
Q412. Which type of EIGRP routes are summarized by the auto-summary command?
A. internal routes that are learned from a peer that is outside the range of local network statements
B. external routes that are learned from a peer that is inside the range of local network statements
C. locally created routes that are outside the range of local network statements
D. external routes that are learned from a peer that is outside the range of local network statements
Auto-Summarization of External Routes
EIGRP will not auto-summarize external routes unless there is a component of the same major network that is an internal route. To illustrate, let us look at Figure 15.
Router Three is injecting external routes to 22.214.171.124/26 and 126.96.36.199/26 into EIGRP using the redistribute connected command, as shown in the configurations below.
ip address 188.8.131.52 255.255.255.192
ip address 184.108.40.206 255.255.255.192
ip address 10.1.2.1 255.255.255.0
!router eigrp 2000
default-metric 10000 1 255 1 1500
With this configuration on Router Three, the routing table on Router One shows:
one# show ip route
10.0.0.0/8 is subnetted, 2 subnets
D 10.1.2.0 [90/11023872] via 10.1.50.2, 00:02:03, Serial0
C 10.1.50.0 is directly connected, Serial0
220.127.116.11/26 is subnetted, 1 subnets
D EX 18.104.22.168 [170/11049472] via 10.1.50.2, 00:00:53, Serial0
D EX 22.214.171.124 [170/11049472] via 10.1.50.2, 00:00:53, Serial0
Although auto-summary normally causes Router Three to summarize the 126.96.36.199/26 and 188.8.131.52/26 routes into one major net destination (184.108.40.206/24), it does not do this because both routes are external. However, if you reconfigure the link between Routers Two and Three to 220.127.116.11/26, and add network statements for this network on Routers Two and Three, the 18.104.22.168/24 auto-summary is then generated on Router Two.
ip address 22.214.171.124 255.255.255.192
ip address 126.96.36.199 255.255.255.192
ip address 188.8.131.52 255.255.255.192
router eigrp 2000 network 184.108.40.206
Now Router Two generates the summary for 220.127.116.11/24:
two# show ip route
D 18.104.22.168/24 is a summary, 00:06:48, Null0
And Router One shows only the summary routE.
one# show ip route
10.0.0.0/8 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 10.1.1.0 is directly connected, Serial0
D 22.214.171.124/24 [90/11023872] via 10.1.50.2, 00:00:36, Serial0
Q413. Refer to the exhibit.
Which two statements are true? (Choose two.)
A. This is the output of the show ip ospf command.
B. This is the output of the show ip protocols command.
C. This router is an ABR.
D. This router is an ASBR.
E. Authentication is not configured for the area.
The following is sample output from the show ip ospf command when entered without a specific OSPF process ID with no authentication.
Router# show ip ospf
Routing Process "ospf 201" with ID 10.0.0.1 and Domain ID 10.20.0.1
Supports only single TOS(TOS0) routes
Supports opaque LSA
SPF schedule delay 5 secs, Hold time between two SPFs 10 secs
Minimum LSA interval 5 secs. Minimum LSA arrival 1 secs
LSA group pacing timer 100 secs
Interface flood pacing timer 55 msecs
Retransmission pacing timer 100 msecs
Number of external LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x0
Number of opaque AS LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x0
Number of DCbitless external and opaque AS LSA 0
Number of DoNotAge external and opaque AS LSA 0
Number of areas in this router is 2. 2 normal 0 stub 0 nssa
External flood list length 0
Number of interfaces in this area is 2
Area has no authentication
SPF algorithm executed 4 times
Area ranges are
Number of LSA 4. Checksum Sum 0x29BEB
Number of opaque link LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x0
Number of DCbitless LSA 3 Number of indication LSA 0
Number of DoNotAge LSA 0 Flood list length 0
Q414. Which two OSPF network types require the use of a DR and BDR? (Choose two.)
A. non-broadcast networks
B. point-to-point networks
C. point-to-multipoint networks
D. broadcast networks
E. point-to-multipoint non-broadcast networks
Q415. Which statement about the RPF interface in a BIDIR-PIM network is true?
A. In a BIDIR-PIM network, the RPF interface is always the interface that is used to reach the PIM rendezvous point.
B. In a BIDIR-PIM network, the RPF interface can be the interface that is used to reach the PIM rendezvous point or the interface that is used to reach the source.
C. In a BIDIR-PIM network, the RPF interface is always the interface that is used to reach the source.
D. There is no RPF interface concept in BIDIR-PIM networks.
RPF stands for "Reverse Path Forwarding". The RPF Interface of a router with respect to an address is the interface that the MRIB indicates should be used to reach that address. In the case of a BIDIR-PIM multicast group, the RPF interface is determined by looking up the Rendezvous Point Address in the MRIB. The RPF information determines the interface of the router that would be used to send packets towards the Rendezvous Point Link for the group.
Q416. Which algorithm heavily influenced the algorithm used by path-vector protocols?
A path vector protocol is a computer network routing protocol which maintains the path information that gets updated dynamically. Updates which have looped through the network and returned to the same node are easily detected and discarded. This algorithm is sometimes used in Bellman–Ford routing algorithms to avoid "Count to Infinity" problems.
Q417. What is the most efficient way to confirm whether microbursts of traffic are occurring?
A. Monitor the output traffic rate using the show interface command.
B. Monitor the output traffic rate using the show controllers command.
C. Check the CPU utilization of the router.
D. Sniff the traffic and plot the packet rate over time.
Micro-bursting is a phenomenon where rapid bursts of data packets are sent in quick succession, leading to periods of full line-rate transmission that can overflow packet buffers of the network stack, both in network endpoints and routers and switches inside the network. In order to troubleshoot microbursts, you need a packet sniffer that can capture traffic over a long period of time and allow you to analyze it in the form of a graph which displays the saturation points (packet rate during microbursts versus total available bandwidth). You can eventually trace it to the source causing the bursts (e.g. stock trading applications).
Reference: Adam, Paul (2014-07-12). All-in-One CCIE V5 Written Exam Guide (Kindle Locations 989-994). Kindle Edition.
Q418. In a PfR environment, which two statements best describe the difference between active mode monitoring and fast mode monitoring? (Choose two.)
A. Active mode monitoring can monitor and measure actual traffic via NetFlow data collection.
B. Fast mode monitoring can measure bursty traffic better than active mode.
C. Active mode monitoring uses IP SLA probes for the purpose of obtaining performance characteristics of the current WAN exit link.
D. Fast mode monitoring uses IP SLA probes via all valid exits continuously to quickly determine an alternate exit link.
PfR uses Cisco IOS IP Service Level Agreements (SLAs) to enable active monitoring. IP SLAs support is enabled by default. IP SLAs support allows PfR to be configured to send active probes to target IP addresses to measure the jitter and delay, determining if a prefix is out-of-policy and if the best exit is selected. The border router collects these performance statistics from the active probe and transmits this information to the master controller.
Fast Failover Monitoring
Fast failover monitoring enables passive and active monitoring and sets the active probes to continuously monitor all the exits (probe-all). Fast failover monitoring can be used with all types of active probes: Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) echo, jitter, TCP connection, and UDP echo.
Q419. Which statement about VRRP is true?
A. It supports load balancing.
B. It can be configured with HSRP on a switch or switch stack.
C. It supports IPv4 and IPv6.
D. It supports encrypted authentication.
. You can configure both HSRP and VRRP on a switch or switch stack. However, you cannot add a switch model that supports only one protocol to a stack that is configured for both protocols.
. The VRRP implementation on the switch does not support the MIB specified in RFC 2787.
. The VRRP implementation on the switch supports only text -based authentication.
. The switch supports VRRP only for IPv4.
Reference: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/switches/lan/catalyst3750x_3560x/software/release/1 2-2_58_se/configuration/guide/3750xscg/swhsrp.html#pgfId-1107127
Q420. Consider a network that mixes link bandwidths from 128 kb/s to 40 Gb/s. Which value should be set for the OSPF reference bandwidth?
A. Set a value of 128.
B. Set a value of 40000.
C. Set a manual OSPF cost on each interface.
D. Use the default value.
E. Set a value of 40000000.
F. Set a value of 65535.
Unlike the metric in RIP which is determined by hop count and EIGRP’s crazy mathematical formulated metric, OSPF is a little more simple. The default formula to calculate the cost for the OSPF metric is (10^8/BW). By default the metrics reference cost is 100Mbps, so any link that is 100Mbps will have a metric of 1. a T1 interface will have a metric of 64 so in this case if a router is trying to get to a FastEthernet network on a router that is through a T1 the metric would be 65 (64 +1). You do however have the ability to statically specify a metric on a per interface basis by using the ip ospf cost # where the cost is an integer between 1-65535.
So the big question is why would you want to statically configure a metric? The biggest advantage of statically configuring an OSPF metric on an interface is to manipulate which route will be chosen dynamically via OSPF. In a nut shell it’s like statically configuring a dynamic protocol to use a specific route. It should also be used when the interface bandwidths vary greatly (some very low bandwidth interfaces and some very high speed interfaces on the same router).