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Q451. For which kind of MPLS deployment is the next-hop-self all keyword used on a BGP neighbor command?
B. MPLS Carrier's carrier
C. inter-AS MPLS VPN option D
D. inter-AS MPLS VPN option C
E. Unified MPLS
Since the core and aggregation parts of the network are integrated and end-to-end LSPs are provided, the Unified MPLS solution is also referred to as "Seamless MPLS." New technologies or protocols are not used here, only MPLS, Label Distribution Protocol (LDP), IGP, and BGP. Since you do not want to distribute the loopback prefixes of the PE routers from one part of the network into another part, you need to carry the prefixes in BGP. The Internal Border Gateway Protocol (iBGP) is used in one network, so the next hop address of the prefixes is the loopback prefixes of the PE routers, which is not known by the IGP in the other parts of the network. This means that the next hop address cannot be used to recurse to an IGP prefix. The trick is to make the ABR routers Route Reflectors (RR) and set the next hop to self, even for the reflected iBGP prefixes. In order for this to work, a new knob is needed. Only the RRs need newer software to support this architecture. Since the RRs advertise the BGP prefixes with the next hop set to themselves, they assign a local MPLS label to the BGP prefixes. This means that in the data plane, the packets forwarded on these end-to-end LSPs have an extra MPLS label in the label stack. The RRs are in the forwarding path. There are two possible scenarios:
. The ABR does not set the next hop to self for the prefixes advertised (reflected by BGP) by the ABR into the aggregation part of the network. Because of this, the ABR needs to redistribute the loopback prefixes of the ABRs from the core IGP into the aggregation IGP. If this is done, there is still scalability. Only the ABR loopback prefixes (from the core) need to be advertised into the aggregation part, not the loopback prefixes from the PE routers from the remote aggregation parts.
. The ABR sets the next hop to self for the prefixes advertised (reflected by BGP) by the ABR into the aggregation part. Because of this, the ABR does not need to redistribute the loopback prefixes of the ABRs from the core IGP into the aggregation IGP.
In both scenarios, the ABR sets the next hop to self for the prefixes advertised (reflected by BGP) by the ABR from the aggregation part of the network into the core part. If this is not done, the ABR needs to redistribute the loopback prefixes of the PEs from the aggregation IGP into the core IGP. If this is done, there is no scalability. In order to set the next hop to self for reflected iBGP routes, you must configure the neighbor x.x.x.x next-hop-self all command.
Q452. DRAG DROP
Drag and drop the LACP elements on the left into the correct priority order in the hot-standby port-selection process on the right.
Q453. Which two options are the two underlying protocols on which a DMVPN relies? (Choose two.)
Q454. Which protocol will accept incoming updates when the passive-interface command is configured?
Q455. Which statement about shaped round robin queuing is true?
A. Queues with higher configured weights are serviced first.
B. The device waits a period of time, set by the configured weight, before servicing the next queue.
C. The device services a single queue completely before moving on to the next queue.
D. Shaped mode is available on both the ingress and egress queues.
SRR is scheduling service for specifying the rate at which packets are dequeued. With SRR there are two modes, shaped and shared. Shaped mode is only available on the egress queues SRR differs from typical WRR. With WRR queues are serviced based on the weight. Q1 is serviced for weight 1 period of time, Q2 is served for weight 2 period of time, and so forth.
The servicing mechanism works by moving from queue to queue and services them for the weighted amount of time. With SRR weights are still followed; however, SRR services Q1, moves to Q2, then Q3 and Q4 in a different way. It does not wait at and service each queue for a weighted amount of time before moving on to the next queue. Instead, SRR makes several rapid passes at the queues; in each pass, each queue might or might not be serviced. For each given pass, the more highly weighted queues are more likely to be serviced than the lower priority queues.
Q456. Which command correctly configures standby tracking for group 1 using the default decrement priority value?
A. standby 1 track 100
B. standby 1 track 100 decrement 1
C. standby 1 track 100 decrement 5
D. standby 1 track 100 decrement 20
Q457. Refer to the exhibit.
Which statement about this device configuration is true?
A. The NMS needs a specific route configured to enable it to reach the Loopback0 interface of the device.
B. The ifindex of the device could be different when the device is reloaded.
C. The device will allow anyone to poll it via the public community.
D. The device configuration requires the AuthNoPriv security level.
One of the most commonly used identifiers in SNMP-based network management applications is the Interface Index (ifIndex) value. IfIndex is a unique identifying number associated with a physical or logical interface. For most software, the ifIndex is the name of the interface. Although relevant RFCs do not require that the correspondence between particular ifIndex values and their interfaces be maintained across reboots, applications such as device inventory, billing, and fault detection depend on this correspondence. Consider a situation where a simple monitoring software (like MRTG) is polling the interface statistics of the router specific serial interface going to the internet.
As an example, you could have these conditions prior to re-initialization:
physical port ifIndex
Therefore, the management application is polling the ifIndex 3, which corresponds to the serial port.
After the router re-initialization (reboot, reload and so on) the conditions change to something similar to this:
The management application continues polling the ifIndex 3, which corresponds now to the ethernet port. Therefore, if the management application is not warned by a trap, for example, that the router has been rebooted, the statistics polled could be completely wrong.
Q458. Refer to the exhibit.
Which option is the result of this configuration?
A. All SNMP traffic coming into the router is redirected to interface GigabitEthernet1/0.
B. All SNMP traffic generated from the router is redirected to interface GigabitEthernet1/0.
C. All SMTP traffic generated from the router is redirected to interface GigabitEthernet1/0.
D. All POP3 traffic coming into the router is redirected to interface GigabitEthernet1/0.
E. All SMTP traffic coming into the router is redirected to interface GigabitEthernet1/0.
This is an example of policy based routing, where traffic sourced from this router that matches the access list (all traffic with port 25 which is SMTP) will be forced out the Gig 0/1 interface.
Q459. Which two statements about Layer 2 Frame Prioritization bits are true? (Choose two.)
A. 802.1Q frame headers carry the CoS value in the three most-significant bits of the 2-byte Tag Control Information field.
B. ISL frame headers carry an IEEE 802.1P CoS value in the three least-significant bits of the 2-byte User field.
C. ISL frame headers carry an IEEE 802.1P CoS value in the three most-significant bits of the 1-byte User field.
D. On 802.1Q trunks, traffic in the native VLAN is carried in 802.1Q frames.
E. Only 802.1Q and ISL frame types can carry CoS information.
F. On 802.1Q trunks, traffic in the native VLAN is carried in 802.1P frames.
Q460. You are tasked with configuring a router on an OSPF domain to import routes from an EIGRP domain and summarize the routes to 192.168.64.0.
Which statement configures the summarized route and provides equal-path route redundancy?
A. area 32 range 192.168.64.0 255.255.192.0 cost 100
B. area 32 range 192.168.64.0 255.255.63.0 cost 100
C. area 32 range 192.168.64.0 255.255.64.0 cost 100
D. area 32 range 192.168.64.0 255.255.192.0 multi-path
To consolidate and summarize routes at an area boundary, use the area range command in router configuration mode. To disable this function, use the no form of this command.
Identifier of the area about which routes are to be summarized. It can be specified as either a decimal value or as an IP address.
IP address mask.
(Optional) Sets the address range status to advertise and generates a Type 3 summary link-state advertisement (LSA).
(Optional) Sets the address range status to DoNotAdvertise. The Type 3 summary LSA is suppressed, and the component networks remain hidden from other networks.
(Optional) Metric or cost for this summary route, which is used during OSPF SPF calculation to determine the shortest paths to the destination. The value can be 0 to 16777215.
Reference: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/ios/12_2/iproute/command/reference/fiprrp_r/1rfospf. html#wp1017596